Monday, June 8, 2020

A Rich Lifestyle In The Great Gatsby - Free Essay Example

Have you ever wondered what life was like back in the older days, when things appeared simpler and life was a lot happier? How everybody had these extravagant and luxurious items and were obsessed with said items. It seemed that everything was perfect: the ideal living style, fabulous items, the American Dream. However, not everything was flawless; everything and everyone had their faults. The Great Gatsby explores this idea of materialism and people wanting nothing but the absolute best. This book also explores the consequences of this form of way of living. In The Great Gatsby, F. Scott Fitzgerald suggests that the American Dream is the desire to possess material things and live a lavish lifestyle, the people who pursue it are the type of people who are never satisfied, careless, and are always wanting bigger and better things, and this pursuit is ultimately heartbreaking, devastating, and deadly. F. Scott Fitzgerald and other writers that were part of the Lost Generation perceived the American Dream as the wish have several high-quality material possessions and live a fancy life. On the other hand, before the 1920s, the more traditional meaning of the American Dream was one of freedom and creating a better life. The version of the American Dream that Fitzgerald knows started to change from the original version in the 1920s due to the fact that the economy was booming, so that meant that people could now buy more expensive things. In The Great Gatsby, Fitzgerald shows the American Dream in a negative light. He does this by means of showing that characters are never satisfied with their current situation. In order to understand this better, looking at the character Daisy Buchanan. She could be seen as the literal personification of the American Dream. There are many instances in the book where Daisy is obsessed with material things. She even cries over shirts in chapter five of the book. On page 92, it says, Theyre such beautiful shirts, she sobbed, her voice muffled in the thick folds. It makes me sad because Ive never seen such..such beautiful shirts before. People who pursued the American Dream were, more often than not, unsatisfied and constantly trying to outdo their last purchase. Jay Gatsby is one of these characters. In the novel, Gatsby exhibits traits of determination, but also a slight obsession. His determination is a positive trait, and it is shown through his unbending will to win over Daisy Buchanan, the woman he loves. It is stated in the text in chapter four that Gatsby had loved Daisy for many years and will do anything to win her back. His slight obsession is a more negative trait, while he loves Daisy it is the obsessive type. This being for the reason that he was so focused on getting Daisy back that he turned to criminal actions to gain enough wealth to accomplish his goal. He was never content until he got what he wanted. On the contrary to Gatsby, Daisy Buchanan was obsessed with living a wealthy life. In chapter seven on page 120, Gatsby even makes the remark that Daisys voice is full of money. Later in the book, it talks about how even though Daisy loves Gatsby, she chose to stay with her husband, Tom, for the money. Daisy chooses to live in wealth than in love. People who pursue the American Dream are also careless in their actions. This evident through the many examples in the book. One way Fitzgerald shows this is through the car crashes. One major and impactful car crash example is towards the end of chapter seven when Daisy hits and kills Myrtle Wilson. She was careless as she merely drove away after it happened. Gatsby was careless in a different sense. He was reckless in taking the blame for Myrtles death, because when Myrtles husband, George Wilson, found out that Gatsby was responsible for his wifes death, George murdered Gatsby. This pursuit of the American Dream, in the end, is heartbreaking, devastating, and deadly. These three things go hand in hand with one another. One event that falls into all three of these categories is the death of Jay Gatsby. His death is heartbreaking due to the audience seeing how devoted and determined Gatsby was to win Daisy over; in the end, it was all done for nothing. His death was devastating to Nick Carraway, the narrator of the story. So much so that Nick moved back west. On page 176 in chapter nine, it says, After Gatsbys death the East was haunted for me like that, distorted beyond my eyes power of correction.I decided to come back home. Gatsbys pursuit of the American Dream was deadly for the fact that he ended up dead; however, it is more of the fact that his ignorance and carelessness in this pursuit eventually lead to his demise. Another event that happened because of someone elses pursuit of the American Dream is the death of Myrtle Wilson. In Daisy Buchanans pursuit, it made her careless, this killed Myrtle. Her death was heartbreaking and devastating to her husband, Tom Wilson. On page 138 in chapter seven, it says, His [Tom] eyes would drop slowly from the swinging light to the laden table by the wall, and then jerk back to the light again, and he gave out incessantly his high, horrible call: Oh, my Ga-od! Oh, my Ga-od! Oh, my Ga-od! Oh, my Ga-od! Myrtles passing was also devastating for Daisy, she felt guilty and awful. In chapter 7 on page 144, Gatsby tells Nick that Daisy has locked herself in her room and refuses to come out. Daisys pursuit consequently came to be deadly because an innocent woman lost her life. Myrtles departure is heart-crushing for the audience as well. The reason for this being that Myrtle was an innocent bystander, so to have her life ripped from her in such a way was gut-wrenching. F. Scott Fitzgerald expresses his view on the American Dream in his novel The Great Gatsby. His outlook on it is negative, which is apparent through the grim fates of some characters and the sad ending of the book. Fitzgerald hints that the American Dream is the need to have material things and have a fancy lifestyle, the people who pursue it are restless, careless, and always wanting more expensive things, and this pursuit is ultimately heart-rending, destroying, and fatal.

Monday, May 25, 2020

Abraham Lincoln, Slavery and the American Civil War Essay

This investigation will analyze how Abraham Lincolns view on slavery reflected during and after the American Civil War from 1861 to 1865. To analyze exactly how Lincolns position on slavery affected the war overall, this investigation looks at Lincolns moral and religious views as well as his social and political views. Two main sources were used, both dealing with events relevant to his political career and his roots in his career and other important issues including slavery. Lincoln by David Herbert Donald tells a deep and detailed story on all aspects of his life and career. Abraham Lincoln and the Union deals with his struggle towards Union victory. Both Lincoln and Abraham Lincoln and the Union will be evaluated for their values,†¦show more content†¦Others suggested he take a softer position on slavery he responded forcefully with these words: â€Å"Let there be no compromise on the question of extending slavery.† Lincoln had a firm position and didnt deviate f rom it: every time a slave bill was passed, he proceeded to vote against the spread of slavery. The separation between North and South revolved around this â€Å"peculiar institution.† In the South, Slavery was used heavily in the economy. Lincoln said that Slavery and abolitionists cannot coexist if there were to be a Union. This â€Å"house,† or Union collapsed quickly. The Souths secession was the main concern with Lincoln in office. The idea of a split was horrifying and to keep the Union and to defend the Constitution was Lincolns first priority. It had come to his attention that freeing the slaves had to be done in late 1862. At the time Abraham Lincoln was known as President Lincoln and Commander in Chief. In January of 1863, Lincoln gave an executive order known as the Emancipation Proclamation as a necessary action of war. Using his elevated power, he addressed the shortcomings of Congress, who couldnt effectively control slavery, and declared all â€Å"per sons held as slaves... shall not then be practically recognized [as slaves ... but are] forever... free.† The Emancipation Proclamation went beyond the attempts of Congress to control slavery as in the Second Confiscation Act of 1862. Some direct effectsShow MoreRelatedEssay on Abraham Lincoln - the Greatest President1069 Words   |  5 PagesAbraham Lincoln There have been forty four U.S. presidents over the past two hundred and twenty years. What president has served the best for our country? None other than Abraham Lincoln. Abraham Lincoln is the greatest president ever because he did great things such as ending slavery, getting the us through the Civil War, and helped our country a lot. The American Civil War was a war between the Southern states and the Confederate states. Abraham Lincoln was not very prepared for the war militarilyRead MoreAfrican Slavery And Slavery Case Study1198 Words   |  5 Pagesexpansion of cotton-based plantations and slavery, what role did African Americans play in undermining slavery? There are a couple of rules that African-American played and undermining slavery. For example, African Americans that did not want to work would often break the tools that they have to work with. Another example of African-Americans undermining slavery would be them working very slow. There are some bigger ways to African-Americans undermine slavery. those ways are them running away fromRead MoreAbraham Lincoln : An Influential President1572 Words   |  7 PagesAbraham Lincoln: An Influential President When you hear the name Abraham Lincoln, what is the first thing that comes to your mind? Do you think of a tall, slender man with an enormous top hat? Do you think of his devotion to the abolition of slavery? Abraham Lincoln contributed to more than one can imagine. He was the president of the United States during a time of colossal distress, the Civil War, and he paved the way for a great number of changes. Abraham Lincoln was a powerful figure whoRead MoreThe Impact Of The 1860 Presidential Election1442 Words   |  6 Pagesas a cause of the American Civil War The 1860 presidential election of Abraham Lincoln greatly contributed to the outbreak of the Civil War. Abraham Lincoln, born in Kentucky on February 12, 1809, served as the sixteenth president of the United States. He was the very first Republican to serve as president, eventually leading the Union to victory during the civil war. Lincoln opposed the idea of the expansion of slavery but acknowledged that he would not interfere with slavery where it existed.Read MoreThe War Between The North And The South993 Words   |  4 PagesFive years American had their own bloodshed between the North and the South. There is many reason into why the United States had a war between the North and the South. The United States was divided depending on location and personal sentiments. People in the United States sometimes think that this war was only fought over slavery, but there was many reason in why the Union and the Confederate States of America fought. 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During Lincoln’s young adult years, he worked a various n umber of jobs as a shopkeeper, surveyor, and a postmaster. In 1832, Lincoln became a captain of the Hawk War against the Native Americans. Shortly after the war was over, he began his political career and was elected to theRead MoreThe Declaration Of The United States1346 Words   |  6 PagesThe Mayflower Compact of 1620, a document based on the Magna Carta of 1215, established what would be the basic laws and morals for the first American Colonists. Colonists were then subjects of the British Monarchy, and expansion to The Americas was beneficial to England’s fast growing empire. The eventual expansion of the thirteen colonies (classified as the Northern, the Middle, and the Southern Colonies) allowed English expansion of trade. However, in 1770, Colonists revolted against England inRead MoreAbraham Lincoln Served As The President Of The United States999 Words   |  4 PagesAbraham Lincoln served as the 16th President of the United States from March of 1861 to April of 1 865, when he was assassinated while still president. In the years of Lincolns’ presidency, the United States’ bloodiest war wreaked havoc throughout the nation. This war was the Civil War, and Lincoln lead his country, The United States of America, through it successfully. On April 12th, 1861, the American Civil War officially began, and on May 9th, 1865, it ended. Therefore, almost the entire timeRead MoreThe Civil War Was Fought Over African American Freedom1331 Words   |  6 Pageswas the cause of the civil war. Till this day there has not been a straightforward answer, but many people still have different views and beliefs on what caused it. Many people believe that political issues or even taxation was the cause of the civil war. 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Sunday, May 24, 2020

Anti-competitive activity in the single market - Free Essay Example

Sample details Pages: 10 Words: 2895 Downloads: 3 Date added: 2017/06/26 Category Economics Essay Type Analytical essay Did you like this example? Title: Discuss the effectiveness of Articles 81 and 82 of the EC Treaty in preventing distortions to the operation of the single market ANSWER In The Wealth of Nations [1], published in 1776, Adam Smith reasoned that countries should strive towards the economic goal of a perfectly free market. He argued that a market undistorted by impediments and barriers to the free play of trade would allow the most efficient and successful producers to perform at an optimum capacity and produce substantial economic benefits for all participants in the market, and he stressed that such benefits could not be obtained in markets where competitive conditions had not been optimised. The European Union adopted this theory from its inception in the 1950s in the form of the European Economic Community. Don’t waste time! Our writers will create an original "Anti-competitive activity in the single market" essay for you Create order The competition law provisions of the Treaty of Rome[2] have always been fundamental to the organisationà ¢Ã¢â€š ¬Ã¢â€ž ¢s philosophy and drive towards the integration and refinement of the national economies of its member states and thus of the combined economy of the Single Market, which grew out of the Common Market when the EU itself was established by the Treaty on European Union (Maastricht Treaty) in 1992.[3] The main competition law rules, which are now to be found in Articles 81 and 82 EC[4] are directed at controlling the behaviour of private firms. These articles will be explained and discussed in turn. Article 81 EC: à ¢Ã¢â€š ¬Ã‹Å"The Community Cartel Busterà ¢Ã¢â€š ¬Ã¢â€ž ¢ It is obvious that a market is likely to be distorted if undertakings which under normal, healthy competitive conditions should be operating in competition with one another choose instead to cooperate with each other in order to manipulate the market in their favour. This form of cooperati on inevitably causes laxity and weaknesses in the flux of trade which negatively affects the market as a whole serves to impact on the interests of consumers served by the market. Consequently the European Union maintains a comprehensive prohibition on such cooperative activity in the form of Article 81. This Article is assiduously enforced and swingeing penalties can and are imposed on companies found to infringe it. The text of Article 81(1) states as follows: à ¢Ã¢â€š ¬Ã…“The following shall be prohibited as incompatible with the common market: all agreements between undertakings, decisions by associations of undertakings and concerted practices which may affect trade between Member States and which have as their object or effect the prevention, restriction or distortion of competition within the common market, and in particular those which: a) directly or indirectly fix purchase or selling prices or any other trading conditions; b) limit or control production, mar kets, technical development, or investment; c) share markets or sources of supply; d) apply dissimilar conditions to equivalent transactions with other trading parties, thereby placing them at a competitive disadvantage; e) make the conclusion of contracts subject to acceptance by the other parties of supplementary obligations which, by their nature or according to commercial usage, have no connection with the subject of such contracts.à ¢Ã¢â€š ¬Ã‚  Following from this wide-ranging and far-reaching clause, Article 81(2) provides that any agreements or decisions covered are automatically void. Of course, a provision is only as effective as its practical interpretation and application.. Consonant with the overarching objectives of the European Union of market integration and efficiency, the European Court of Justice has consistently shown itself prepared to interpret the essential concepts and terms of Article 81 with full contextual and purposive force. This interpre tative policy has been adopted so as to lend the provision the greatest possible scope and utility in its role as a guardian of market competitiveness. The term à ¢Ã¢â€š ¬Ã…“undertakingà ¢Ã¢â€š ¬Ã‚  is for example, central to the application of the provision. It is left undefined in the Treaty but the European Court has chosen to interpret the word in the widest conceivable sense to embrace à ¢Ã¢â€š ¬Ã…“any legal or natural person engaged in some form of commercial or economic activityà ¢Ã¢â€š ¬Ã‚ : Commercial Solvents Corp v Commission.[5] Many different forms of entity have been deemed to constitute à ¢Ã¢â€š ¬Ã‹Å"undertakingsà ¢Ã¢â€š ¬Ã¢â€ž ¢ for the purposes of the provision, hence allowing its application. These include public undertakings where they are found to participate in commercial activity as in the case Bodson v Pompes Funebres des Regions Liberees[6]. Partnerships were also found covered by the term in Commission Decision (73/323) Re William Prym-Werk e[7]. Interestingly, economically active individuals including for example an opera singer in Re Unitel[8] and an inventor in AOIP/Beyrard[9] have also been ruled to qualify as undertakings. Moreover, in circumstances where such act in a commercial or quasi-commercial endeavour even non-profit making organisations and charitable organisations can be held to constitute undertakings: see Commission Decision GVL.[10] The scope and power of Article 81 can be underlined by the fact that due to the European Court of Justiceà ¢Ã¢â€š ¬Ã¢â€ž ¢s application of the principle of extraterritoriality, even companies based exclusively outside the European Union and its Single Market can be brought to book under the competition provision if their activity falls within Article 81 and it has an anti-competitive impact on the flux of trade within the Community. The Ahlstrom (Wood Pulp)[11] case involved companies based in Scandinavia (which at the time of the litigation was still outside the EU) and North America that had conspired to manipulate prices for wood pulp which had artificially influenced the EU market. The Commission initiated Article 81 action against the companies and the European Court found against them, grounding its jurisdiction on the location of the effect of the behaviour of the companies and not on the location of the companies themselves. The Article 81 provision that agreements must be between undertakings is also very generously interpreted and applied so as to give full expansive force to the prohibition. It is submitted that the only situation in which the Court of Justice will typically refrain from acting against companies in a cooperative relationship is where those companies are in a parent-subsidiary situation. The reason for this is that such companies to all intents and purposes combine to comprise a single economic unit and therefore no competitive relationship would usually exist to be compromised in the first place. An example can be found in Centrafarm BV v Sterling Drug Inc[12]. In similar fashion, the effectiveness of Article 81 has been ensured by the Court of Justice by its definition of the central concept of à ¢Ã¢â€š ¬Ã…“agreementà ¢Ã¢â€š ¬Ã‚  as between undertakings. In the case of ACF Chemiefarma NV v EC Commission[13], for example, the Court expressly stated that even a so-called à ¢Ã¢â€š ¬Ã‹Å"gentlemanà ¢Ã¢â€š ¬Ã¢â€ž ¢s understandingà ¢Ã¢â€š ¬Ã¢â€ž ¢ between competitive companies would justify prohibitive sanction if it was found to amount to: à ¢Ã¢â€š ¬Ã…“the faithful expression of the joint intention of the parties to the agreement with regard to their conduct in the Common Market.à ¢Ã¢â€š ¬Ã‚  As for the concept of agreement itself, the utility and efficacy of the prohibition is also maintained by the fact that the European Court does not concern itself with the distinction between vertical and horizontal agreements in its application of Article 81. Vertical agreements can be defined as those between undertakings at different levels of the market. Such an agreement might be made between a manufacturer and a wholesaler or retailer, and a tying or tied agreement is one example. On the other hand, a horizontal agreement is deemed to be those which are struck between undertakings operating at the same level of industry. Horizontal agreements therefore include those made between two manufacturers or two wholesalers in a market, and such arrangements might amount to, for example, price fixing. The point is that the Court is unconcerned with the differences between the two classes of agreement: both forms of cooperation are potentially anti-competitive and both are accordingly prohibited as detrimental to the free play of commerce in the Single Market. Article 81 also includes the concept of the à ¢Ã¢â€š ¬Ã‹Å"concerted practiceà ¢Ã¢â€š ¬Ã¢â€ž ¢. This is clearly in place to allow the Court of Justice to rule against undertakings who attempt to avoid even th e loose interpretation of à ¢Ã¢â€š ¬Ã‹Å"agreementà ¢Ã¢â€š ¬Ã¢â€ž ¢ by operating deliberately secretive, subtle and casual arrangements between themselves.. However, the efficacy of Article 81 is such that even this much less tangible species of collusion than agreements or decisions is caught by the provision. Cooperatieve Vereniging Suiker Unie UA Ors v EC Commission[14] is a leading case on the issue, where the court stressed that a concerted practice would be found where 3 elements are found to co-exist: 1. Coordination in some form must replace the independent action between undertakings; 2. Coordination must be maintained by some form of contact, be it direct or indirect; 3. The object of the coordination must be to à ¢Ã¢â€š ¬Ã‹Å"remove in advance any uncertainty as to the future conduct of their competitorsà ¢Ã¢â€š ¬Ã¢â€ž ¢. All of these concepts are very generously applied with the aim of promoting the effectiveness and reach of Article 81. Article 82 EC Article 82 operates in partnership with Article 81 in regulating the Single Market. As stated, Article 81 endeavours to promote effective competition in the Union marketplace by prohibiting multilateral coordination, anti-competitive agreements and other economic collusions between undertakings. Article 82 in turn provides a control mechanism applicable to the unilateral conduct of single firms that enjoy what is referred to as a dominant position in the markets in which they operate.. It is argued that this simple division of responsibility and scope lends a cogent symbiosis to the relationship between these two central provisions of EU competition law. Article 82 states as follows: à ¢Ã¢â€š ¬Ã…“Any abuse by one or more undertakings of a dominant position within the common market or in a substantial part of it shall be prohibited as incompatible with the common market in so far as it may affect trade between Member States.. Such abuse may, in particular, consist in a) directly or indirectly imposing unfair purchase or selling prices or other unfair trading conditions; b) limiting production, markets or technical development to the prejudice of consumers; c) applying dissimilar conditions to equivalent transactions with other trading parties, thereby placing them at a competitive disadvantage; d) making the conclusion of contracts subject to acceptance by the other parties of supplementary obligations which, by their nature or according to commercial usage, have no connection with the subject of such contracts.à ¢Ã¢â€š ¬Ã‚  There is a manifest justification for Article 82. If an ordinary competitive firm attempts to do business on unreasonable trading terms or charge excessively high prices for its goods in a competitive market, the market will react in such a way as to ensure that the firm simply loses business and is forced to reconsider its policies or fail. However, if the undertaking has a dominant position (an economically powerful position defined by market share) within the relevant market it may have the freedom to act in such a way as to manipulate the market to its own ends without being subject to a market reaction that causes it to change its harmful business practices. Article 82 is designed to deal with just this situation, and it is submitted that it does so effectively when employed. As has been observed, the key terms and concepts of Article 81 EC are augmented by teleological and contextual interpretation. Precisely the same policy is adopted by the European Court of Justice in relation to the fundamental terms of Article 82, and for precisely the same reasons of market integrity, integration and efficiency. As in the case of all prohibitions, the effectiveness of Article 82 should be measured by its application. Market dominance is measured once the Court of Justice has defined the so-called relevant product market, which will be the specific product range and specific area within the Single Market in which it is claimed that dominance is enjoyed by the undertaking in question. As Michelin v EC Commission[15] illustrated, a product market will be found to include any product which is à ¢Ã¢â€š ¬Ã…“equivalent to or interchangeable for the specific product being marketed by the dominant companyà ¢Ã¢â€š ¬Ã‚ . This test is fundamental to the efficacy of Article 82 for compelling tactical reasons. The ultimate size and scope of the product market defined will typically be the determining factor in whether a company is considered dominant within it, with all the entailed consequences of that finding.. The interests of the Single Market consumer are considered paramount by the European Court in this regard. Product interchangeability with other products is judged from the vantage point of the consumer, taking into account the characteristics, price and uses of the product in question. Article 82 litigation is won and lost on this technical aspect of the pr ohibition. Allegedly dominant undertakings seek to contend that broad consumer preferences and uses should be adopted, for the reason that this inevitably increases the size of the relevant product market and therefore dilutes the undertakingà ¢Ã¢â€š ¬Ã¢â€ž ¢s dominance within it, making sanction under Article 92 less likely. On the other hand, the European Commission is usually at pains to argue that narrowly defined consumer preferences and uses should be adopted to reduce the size of the market for review and thus concentrate the undertakingà ¢Ã¢â€š ¬Ã¢â€ž ¢s market power within it. The issue of product interchangeability therefore necessitates an investigation into whether the scrutinised product can be replaced by other goods that satisfy the same consumer uses, expectations and demands. As Europemballage Corp and Continental Can v EC Commission[16] illustrates, if a product can be substituted then the product under review is deemed to constitute part of a larger product m arket which includes all those products found to be freely interchangeable with each other. If, because of its individual characteristics, a product cannot be easily replaced or substituted by other goods, it is deemed to form a relevant product market on its own. Given the fact that the European Court of Justice habitually prefers interpretations of EC competition law that reinforce and underpin the power of the Treaty, it can come as no surprise that the Commission normally wins the argument on market definition.. As stated, narrow market definition means it is easier to find dominance which in turn means that Article 82 can be successfully applied in more cases. The seminal case of United Brands v Commission[17] saw the Court hold that the banana formed a product market all of its own, independent to that of other fresh fruit, because it was ruled that bananas had unique qualities that distinguished them from other fruit. Taking the perspective of the consumer, the Court found that the size, shape and softness of bananas made them particularly attractive to certain ends of the market, including the elderly and the very young (which share a distinct lack of teeth necessary for the consumption of firmer kinds of fruit.) EU Competition Law Sanctions The end product of any prohibitionà ¢Ã¢â€š ¬Ã¢â€ž ¢s effectiveness can be found in the sanctions that it imposes. It is submitted that Article 81 and 82 can certainly be deemed effective based on the penalties levied for their breach. Moreover, the European Courtà ¢Ã¢â€š ¬Ã¢â€ž ¢s commitment to the efficacy and enforcement of these competition provisions is also manifest on perusal of the penalties it has endorsed. Fines of up to ten per cent of annual turnover can be imposed in cases of breach of Articles 81 or 82. In light of the fact that many of the undertakings concerned are global enterprises with vast turnovers the penalties involved can and are often draconian in size. In Tetra Pak Rausing SA (II) v Commission[18] in 1991 a single fine of 75 mECU was levied against the Scandinavian-based carton board company. 1994 saw a total fine of 248 mECU was imposed on key members of the Cement Producersà ¢Ã¢â€š ¬Ã¢â€ž ¢ Cartel[19] and the Austro-German car manufacturer Volkswagen suffered an individual penalty of 102 mECU for abuse of its dominant position in 1998.[20] Concluding Comments As has been discussed, Articles 81 and 82 of the Treaty of Rome operate effectively and in symbiotic partnership to combat anti-competitive activity in the Single Market. These provisions are lent power and efficacy by the generous and purposive interpretative stance of the Court of Justice and the proactive attitude of the European Commission.. The terms of the Articles themselves are, it is submitted, about as comprehensive and effective as they could be. The enduring weakness of the EU competition enforcement regime, if there is one, lies not in the text of the legal framework but in the lack of resources, in terms of time and manpower, devoted to the policing of the market. THE END GLOBAL DOCUMENT WORD COUNT : 2840 (answer only 2695) I have allowed a small overrun because I decided it was appropriate to reproduce the text of Article 81 and 82 in the answer in extenso and these words should not be counted. BIBLIOGRAPHY Adam Smith, The Wealth of Nations (1776) (Great Minds Series) (1991) Prometheus Books.. Steiner and Woods, Textbook on EC Law, (2003) Blackstone Press. Treaty establishing the European Economic Community: Tillotson and Foster, Text, Cases and Materials on European Union Law, (2003) Cavendish Publishing Kent, P., Law of the European Union, (2001) Longman Recent Guidance on Fining Policy, Spink, P., [1999] European Competition Law Review, 101-108 Cases as footnoted 1 Footnotes [1] Adam Smith, The Wealth of Nations (1776) (Great Minds Series) (1991) Prometheus Books. [2] See the consolidated version of the Treaty establishing the European Economic Community: [3] See for further comment and elaboration: Textbook on EC Law, Steiner and Woods, (2003) Blackstone. [4] Previously Article 85 and 86 EC (the Treaty of Rome was renumbered by the Amsterdam Treaty). [5] Cases 6 7/73 [1974] ECR 233. [6] Case 30/87 [1988] ECR 2479. [7] 1973 OJ L296/24. [8] [1978] 3 CMLR 306. [9] (1976). [10] (1983). [11] Cases 89 125-129/85 [1993] 1 CEC 466. [12] Case 15/74 [1974] ECR 1147. [13] Case 41/69 [1970] ECR 661. [14] Cases 40-48 114/73 [1975] ECR 1663. [15] 322/81 [1983] ECR 3461. [16] 6/72 [1973] ECR 215. [17] C27/76 [1978] ECR 207. [18] T-51/89 [1991] 4 CMLR 334. [19] Decision 94/815 [1995] 1 CEC 2092. [20] Recent Guidance on Finin g Policy, Spink, P., [1999] European Competition Law Review, 101-108.

Sunday, May 17, 2020

Worldview On Terrorism Terrorism - 1654 Words

worldview on terrorism. Unlike earlier before when terror groups were confined in their countries or particular region, the new form of terror signposted that they could perpetrate terror to the entire world. Evidently, from the recent past attack it’s apparent that their most suitable target is unarmed civilians. They also target the highest number of casualties possible so as to inflict fear and intimidations and consequently pass their propaganda. Modern terrorism can be analyzed focusing on issues such motivation, territorialism and individualism. Assumingly, it is apparent that terrorists are more motivated than ever. Unlike before, most terrorism activities carried out worldwide in the recent past are largely motivated by religion rather than political or economic objectives. Jihad teachers use religion as base of their teaching, and impose ideas to their students or followers (Mamdani, 2002). Their key motivation is religion. Other motivation to terrorism also exists such as politics among others though religious motivated tend to be more severe of all of them. Some time ago, most terrorism activities focused only on places or regions were their goals and objectives were confined. This form of terrorism was mainly homegrown or domestic. After realization of their objectives terror activities were ceased or declined gradually. Modern terrorism has no borders; it can be carried out virtually anywhere. It is more sophisticate d and systematized thus very severe. Its goalsShow MoreRelatedEssay about The Ever Increasing International Terrorism Threat635 Words   |  3 Pagesinternational terrorism which states that not even a superpower like America is immune from these attacks as the main objective behind this the mass destruction. Terrorism can be defined as the specific and deliberate use of violence against civilians in order to achieve political aims. The international community today finds itself in unprecedented danger. According to a report in Chaillot paper, the danger is based on a combination of three main factors inherent in modern international terrorism: the veryRead MoreAmerican Neo Orientalism And The Justification For The War On Terror 1426 Words   |  6 Pages‘War on Terror’ that institutionalized racially charged violence through the demonization of the Islamic ‘Other’. The US-led project to ‘save’ its identity serves to permanently etch within the American subconscious a false representation of modern terrorism in order to incite fear of the ‘Orient’ both abroad and within its borders. In the years following 9/11, the American contemporary security landscape has undergone a paradigm shift towards the adoption of neo-Orientalist ideals and the concomitantRead MoreThe Rise Of Islamic Civilization872 Words   |  4 PagesHowever, â€Å"the rise of Islamic civilization is a story of faith and confrontation amidst societies in political and cultural transition† (Rogers 211). Its story of faith grew exponentially through the prophet Muhammad. Through his influence, Islam’s worldview became clear that, â€Å"there is but one God [Allah], and his prophet Muhammad† (211), and it marks the starting point of a Muslims belief. Through devotion to Islam, Muslims practice the Five Pillars: faith, prayer, almsgiving, fasting, and pilgrimageRead MoreWorld War II And Japanese Peoples1226 Words   |  5 PagesIsrael are rogue states. They do not respect human beings nor the law. They are established on crime and terrorism. They are criminal states in every sense of the word and they pose a threat to world peace† (Al-Arabiya 2014: comment 46). In lumping together China with other nation-states such as Isra el, the commentator establishes the shared commonality between those states as ‘crime and terrorism’, which are threatening the world peace. By creating a hostile front, China becomes one among many otherRead MoreThe Boston Marathon Bombing Essay1702 Words   |  7 Pages(Candiotti, 2013). In the message, Dzhokhar Tsarnaev also stated that an attack on one Muslim is an attack on all (Candiotti, 2013). Because of this and the actions witnessed on that bloody day, many see the bombings at the Boston Marathon as an act of terrorism, which, according to the Federal Bureau of Investigations, includes activities that correspond to the following three characteristics: acts dangerous to human life that violate federal or state law, appear intended (i) to intimidate or coerce a civilianRead MoreChanges in Europe Since the Fall of the Soviet Union, Effects and Issues.1399 Words   |  6 Pagesoptimistic, their optimism did not last very long. Between 1990 and 1994 Eastern European countries saw a huge jump in unemployment because of the fall of the Soviet Union. On top of all of these challenges Eastern Europeans also struggled to find a new worldview to base their lives upon. In the people lived based upon Marxist Idealism, which taught that there is no god and a persons environment determined their nature, Naturally missionaries were eager to share the Gospel. Missionaries flocked to E asternRead MoreAmerica since the Attack on the World Trade Center Essay1063 Words   |  5 PagesEver since Osama Bin Laden attacked the World Trade Center, America has not been the same. The nation’s ideas of patriotism, democracy and worldviews have changed dramatically, though not for the better. The United States government has become more aggressive, selfish, and suspicious. The people are becoming massively fearful, angry and confused. The image of America to the other nations is becoming distorted and untrue. Our media and our administration’s personal agenda are affecting the peopleRead MoreTerrorism Is An International And Domestic Problem Essay2339 Words   |  10 PagesTerrorism is an international and domestic problem in today’s society. Many countries are affected by terrorism directly and sometimes indirectly. A substantial amount of nations question terrorism, however there are some nations that tolerate it and or encourage the active terro rists and extremist’s groups. There is no particular term that would describe terrorism, however it is often identified as the use of violence and fear in the hunt for political and often sometimes religious objectives.Read MoreFaith and Doubt at Ground Zero by 823 Words   |  4 Pagesnonreligious beliefs represented by the friends and family of those who died, one universal belief binds them all: the belief that an unspeakable act of cruelty has changed our nation and our people for all time. The name ascribed to this act of terrorism is debated widely. Some call it evil. Others call it nothing more than supreme cruelty. Award-winning writer, Helen Whitney, and author and noted Jewish agnostic, Ron Rosenblum sought to chronicle the â€Å"spiritual aftershocks† of 9-11. On SeptemberRead MoreThe Role Of Religion And Sociological Perspective923 Words   |  4 Pagesreligion, status, race, or culture. I find the world and everything in it to work to perfection for me to believe that we were created by mere coincidence and evolution (concepts that Atheist’s faith may be based on). Therefore, if I have to relate my worldview to a certain denomination, I would accept that my views are closely related to Theism, which is the belief in the existence of one perfect, divine being. In order to understand the concepts of religion in a sociological outlook, I would

Thursday, May 14, 2020

Archaism - Definition and Examples

An archaism is a word or phrase (or a particular meaning of a word or phrase) that is no longer in common use and is considered extremely old-fashioned. Etymology:  From the Greek, ancient, beginning Pronunciation:  ARE-kay-i-zem Also Known  As:  lexical zombie A  grammatical archaism  is a sentence structure or word order thats no longer in common use in most dialects.   Linguist Tom McArthur notes that literary archaism occurs when a style is modeled on older works, so as to revive earlier practices or achieve the desired effect. (Source: Concise Oxford Companion to the English Language, 2005) Examples The old man raised the axe and split the head of John Joel Glanton to the thrapple.(Source: Cormac McCarthy, Blood Meridian, 1985)[Nick Faldo] speaks in a jaunty, clipped, wised-up vernacular, mixing street-smart patter with solid analysis. His vocabulary is rich in curious archaisms—jeepers, crumbs, gee—and eccentric asides.(Source: Jason Cowley, Nicks Second Coming. The Guardian, Oct. 1, 2006) 19th-Century Archaisms We do not have to go back as far as Elizabethan English or the Middle Ages to encounter archaisms. Here are some from the Victorian and Edwardian eras: beastly (as in so beastly critical) blest, deuced (if I know) capital! (as an exclamation of delight) very civil (of you) confound you! damnable cheek guvnor luncheon pray (come in) (you) rotter spiffing And might we not say that daddy-o is an archaism, even though it was alive and well in the 1960s? (Source: David Crystal, Words, Words, Words. Oxford University Press, 2006) 20th-Century Archaisms Among the technological archaisms Ive had to explain to the Tuned In children—what a record is, why they call it dialing a phone, the fact that, once, you couldnt rewind TV shows—is the fact that, a long time ago, musicians used to make little movies of their songs, and people would watch them on TV. (James Poniewozik, Wake Up and Smell the Cat Food in Your Bank Account. Time magazine, May 2, 2007) Stuff It is rather odd to see that the OED [Oxford English Dictionary] defines the word care as some kind of stuff. This seems at first glance to be a rather nonspecific definition to find in what is arguably the greatest dictionary ever created. But it is actually very specific—just a bit archaic. The word stuff has had a variety of meanings through the ages, and at the time that this definition was written, in 1888, it referred to (among other things) a woollen fabric or material for the gown worn by a junior counsel.(Source: Ammon Shea, Dated Definitions. The New York Times, Aug. 12, 2009) Archaisms and Register It should be added . . . that there is a problem with the identification of archaism, since archaisms are  sometimes not archaic in the register in which they are used. For example, thee and thou are not archaic forms in a certain type of poetic register; they are archaic only in relation to our contemporary day-to-day speech. Thus the use of an archaism can be interpreted as either conforming to a register or looking back to the past (or both). . . . Only by using a dictionary such as the OED, which is a historical dictionary, giving the meanings of words over time, will you be able to find out whether certain words were current or archaic at the time of writing.​  Ã¢â‚¬â€¹(Source: Martin Montgomery et al.,  Ways of Reading: Advanced Reading Skills for Students of English Literature, 3rd ed. Routledge, 2007) The Lighter Side of Archaisms Frank Rossitano: Yo Tray, we got a problem. Tracy Jordan as President Thomas Jefferson: Pray, who be this Tracy Jordan thou speakest of? Frank: Eh, President Jefferson, we got a problem. Tracy: Speaketh. Frank Rossitano: That horse ate your wig. Tracy: Well, stand guard by his rump and await it in his droppings.(Source: Judah Friedlander and Tracy Morgan in Corporate Crush. 30 Rock, 2007)

Essay about The Atomic Bomb in World War Two - 1311 Words

The Atomic Bomb in World War Two In 1941 the Japanese attacked Pearl Harbor, the armed forces of the United States and her allies had been at war with Japan. The combined land, sea and air forces of the allied forces fought back against Japan, until only the Japanese homeland remained in Japanese control. On July 26,1941 President Truman issued the Potsdam Declaration,which called for Japan’s unconditional surrender and listed peace terms. The Japanese were warned of the consequences of continued resistance by the terms of the Potsdam Declaration, signed by President Truman, the Prime Minister of the United Kingdom with concurrence of Chang Kai-Shek, President of the National Government of China. When Japan rejected the†¦show more content†¦Around 1803 John Dalton, an English chemist developed the first useful atomic theory of matter. Amedeo Avogadro, the Italian chemist in 1811 published an article drawing the distinction between the atom and the molecule, which now is known as â€Å"Avogadro’s Principle†. The French team of Pierre and Marie Curie who are known as the parents of nuclear physics came to the realization that the atom has a core, or nucleus. It became apparent that different laws of physics govern the nucleus. In Cambridge England, Sir J.J. Thomson who in 1897 discovered the electron and his pupil Lord Ernest Rutherford discovered the proton. The history of the atomic age was coming right along on a steady pace then in 1905 Albert Einstein wrote the mass-energy conversion equation, and things started to progress very rapidly. In 1932 Sir James Chadwick discovered the neutron, this rovided an ideal projectile for splitting the atom. The final clue to the neutron and atomic energy was when an observation was noted that a peculiar property of the radiation emitted when beryllium is bombarded with alpha particles. In 1938 the discovery of fission of the uranium nucleus by neutron bombardment. In 1940 President Roosevelt organized the National Defense Resear ch Committee, which was determined to develop an atomic bomb. Development and construction of the atomic bomb was the most closely guarded secret in scientific history. This was aShow MoreRelatedWorld War Two and the Atomic Bomb Essay739 Words   |  3 PagesWorld War Two and the Atomic Bomb World War II is one of the most historic points in the history of the world. The war was by far the most devastating in the history of the world. There were many controversial actions during the war, but one of the biggest was the decision by the United States to drop atomic bombs. The atomic bomb should have been used to end the war because it saved more lives than continuing the war. The official bombing order was signed on July 25, 1945, by ThosRead MoreTruman and Atomic Bombs649 Words   |  3 Pagesdropping of the atom bomb. HARRY S TRUMAN amp; THE DECISION TO ORDER THE DROPPING OF THE ATOMIC BOMB Boom! Boom! Seventy thousands Japanese citizens were perished instantly after the first atomic bomb was dropped in Hiroshima on August 6, 1945. Japanese still refused to surrender to Allied forces. On August 9, 1945, with the dropping of the second atomic bomb in Nagasaki, where eighty thousands people were vaporized, Japanese surrendered unconditionally and the World War II ended (â€Å"The DecisionRead MoreThe Atomic Bomb : Manhattan Project1331 Words   |  6 PagesTopic: The Atomic Bomb: Manhattan Project The Manhattan Project was a research and development project that produced the first nuclear weapons during World War II. The Manhattan project was the invention of the first two nuclear bombs, Fat man and little boy. These two bombs were dropped on Japanese islands to end World War II. Math The formula E=MC2 is responsible for the immense power of the Atomic Bomb. E = mc2, equation in German-born physicist Albert Einstein’s theoryRead MoreThe Atomic Bomb On The World War II887 Words   |  4 Pagesdrop two atomic bombs days apart in the Japanese cities of Hiroshima and Nagasaki. I completely agree with President Truman’s decision to drop the atomic bomb on the two Japanese cities because I believe it is the main reason that ended World War II. Being from Malaysia, my grandparents often told me stories of their sufferings during World War II. As Singapore’s former Prime Minister concurred, the Japanese soldiers were mean, brutal and vicious towards the civilians, and if the atomic bombs wereRead MoreA Closer Look at the Bombings in Hiroshima and Nagasaki1485 Words   |  6 PagesUnited States to surrender in the war and rejecting each one, the Japanese set themselves up for disaster. On August 6, 1945 the course of history was changed. Two atomic bombs were dropped on the Japanese cities of Hiroshima, and three days later, August 9, 1945, on Nagasaki that ended World War II. Japan had already been a defeated nation from conventional bombs and World War II. Many innocent lives were lost, psychological scars were left on the lives of the bomb survivors, and thus many livesRead MoreThe Manhattan Project1519 Words   |  7 PagesThe process of building the two atomic bombs was long and hard. The Manhattan project employed 120,000 people, and cost almost $2 billion. Although there were 120,000 Americans working on the project only a select group of scientist knew of the atomic bomb development. Vice president Truman never knew about the development of the bombs until he became president. The axis powers did not know what was going on with the development of the atomic bomb; there was a soviet spy in the project. The sovietRead MoreHiroshima And The Atomic Bomb1716 Words   |  7 Pagesdropped an atomic bomb on Hiroshima, wh ich was the first time an atomic bomb was used in war. Three days later, the United States proceeded to drop an atomic bomb again on another city, Nagasaki, which was the last time that an atomic bomb has ever been used in the world till today. Soon after the devastating bombings, with thousands of Japanese civilians dead, the Japanese emperor Hirohito surrendered, marking the official end of WWII. Consequently, whether or not dropping the atomic bomb was theRead MoreThe Atomic Bombings of Hiroshima and Nagasaki1656 Words   |  7 PagesDid the atomic bomb have to be used in World War II on Japan? There were multiple reasons why the atomic bombings of Hiroshima and Nagasaki were necessary. One of which is to reduce the chance of Allied casualties if the war continued. Another reason was to prohibit the possibility that an Axis country such as Nazi Germany, could create an atomic weapon. A third reason or is whether or not the use of atomic weapons on innocent people was worth the media backlash. A final reason is that the workRead MoreThe Atomic Bomb1094 Words   |  5 Pageshelping create the atomic bomb. The idea of the atomic bomb with atoms and fission was not conceived overnight. The scientist from Ernest Rutherford who is from New Zealand to German, British, Japanese, and other scientist from across the globe all contributed to nuclear physics and research on the atom. Most who worked on the famous Manhattan Project were from other countries. The Republic of science was not an actual institution but a belief that the scientists of the world would go beyond politicsRead MoreThe Atomic Bomb Of Hiroshima And Nagasaki884 Words   |  4 Pagescities of Hiroshima and Nagasaki as the atomic bombs were dropped. Thousands of people were killed instantly, with the rest left critically injured. Eventually, it was measured that 135,000 people were killed as a result of these bombs. We know that many people were killed. But how and why were the atomic bomb s created? Who decided to use them? These questions all contribute to the fact that the atomic bombs impacted the world greatly. It all started when World War II began in 1939. Some scientists

Wednesday, May 6, 2020

Obesity Should Be Stigmatized - 1231 Words

Obesity Should be Stigmatized According to the CDC’s Division of Nutrition, Physical Activity, and Obesity (2015) â€Å"The estimated annual medical cost of obesity in the U.S. was $147 billion in 2008 U.S. dollars; the medical costs for people who are obese were $1,429 higher than those of normal weight† (DNCPAO, 2015, para.1). Obesity should be stigmatized because it is a leading cause of health concerns, those that are not obese are having to foot the bill for those that are, and simply telling people that obesity is unhealthy clearly has no effect. There are many problems in the world today, not the least of which is obesity and rising unhealthy habits. Society has been warned since they were young that obesity can cause major health problems, but that apparently means nothing to them. There is a measure called the body mass index, or BMI, which calculates a relationship between weight and height. A BMI of 25-29.9 is considered over weight and anything higher than that is considered obese. In the 1990’s a significant rise in overweight and obesity occurred, likely due to extended time in front of computers and televisions, the prevalence of supersized food at restaurants, and bad nutrition after leaving your parents’ home to start your own life. Technology has made our lives easier, there is no doubt about that, but there is no excuse for being morbidly obese. Stigmatization, or shaming, those that are not the norm has been around as long as man has existed. It is one ofShow MoreRelatedObesity And Its Effects On Society997 Words   |  4 Pagesone looks, but it is the reaction of society or how society reacts that determines if an act is deviant or not (Goode, 2011). Obesity adheres to Goffman’s typology of stigma and deviance; abomination of the body and blemish of individual character (Goode, 2011). Terms such â€Å"Hog Bodies† or â€Å"Pigs in Human suits† are frequently used because the majority considers obesity as a product of immoral or deviant behavior. Furthermore, individuals that are not fat believe those that are obese became fatRead MoreThe Psychological And Physical Effects Of Obesity1325 Words   |  6 PagesName: Obesity To determine whether obesity is a kind of disease, we need to understand the psychological and physical effect of obesity. Based on our daily experience, I can find that the effect is obvious and significant. But we still need to do further research to find out the extent of these two kinds of effects. Based on the article Psychological aspects of childhood obesity: a controlled study in a clinical and nonclinical sample written by Caroline Braet, Ivan Mervielde and Walter VandereyckenRead MoreWith The Increase In Access To Scientific Research And1288 Words   |  6 Pagespeople today are faced with a dual standard on the issue of smoking tobacco. It is stigmatized to be irresponsible and detrimental to health, yet the â€Å"cool† characters on movies and televisions are shown smoking cigarettes. In some cases, smoking is also seen as a path to adulthood. But due to smoking’s overwhelming detrimental effects on the smoker and the people around him or her, the â€Å"coolness† of smoking should be reconsidered as a moral failing instead. Although the idea of sins arose from monksRead MoreObesity : Obesity And Diabetes833 Words   |  4 PagesFat or simply overweight used to be celebrated and admired, now it’s stigmatized and looked down upon. Getting fat used to give us a genetic edge: When food was scarce, we needed to store backup reserves of energy, because we couldn’t always guarantee when or where we’d find our next meal. However, as our food industry and the infrastructure of our economy changes, so do our views and options. Over the past several years, obesity has become a serious health concern in all around the world, IncludingRead MoreObesity : An American Crises1062 Words   |  5 Pagesto overweight and obesity by sex and race that are statistically significant with the Hispanic group. Among children ages 2 to 19, Hispanic boys are more likely than Hispanic girls to be obese. It is noted that Hispanic boys of this age group, 2- 19 years old are obese (NCLR, 2010). The target audience for this health promotion topic is Hispanic male children ages 2 to19 years residing in Norcross Georgia. This paper focuses on the literature reviews on the prevalence of obesity within this age groupRead MoreSocial Labeli ng And Stigmatizing Minority Children827 Words   |  4 PagesOne must understand the diversity of health issues in dealing with different ethnicity groups in childhood obesities. Since my research data demonstrate that minorities are more likely to be obese than non-minorities, thus I do not want to provide an image of social labeling and stigmatizing minority children who are overweight. There are many factors that play in role in children being obese that must be taken into accounts. One of the factors, the income status of the parents and how it generallyRead MoreEssay on Rhetorical Analysis: Too Much of a Good Thing1292 Words   |  6 Pageschildhood obesity. Overall, Cristers argument succeeds and his audience walks away convinced that childhood obesity is, in fact, an epidemic that plagues children in their own country and that they must act immediately themselves to help fight the fight and insure that it does not become a problem with their own children. One common rhetorical strategy is ethos, which is the use of credible sources to support a claim. Since Crister is a writer and not an expert on childhood obesity himself, itRead MoreObesity : A Complex Problem With Multiple Factors Involved Essay1182 Words   |  5 Pages Obesity is a Complex problem with multiple factors involved. The issue is that various forms of solutions are required to deal with this problem. There is a policy gap which is a minimum number of early child health promotion programs in Atlantic Canada specifically Nova Scotia (Figure 2). Diseases traditionally not seen until adulthood are now prevalent in children as well, such as type 2 diabetes. Some people are not aware that childhood obesity can have serious implications later in lifeRead MoreCauses and Impact of Childhood Obesity1335 Words   |  5 PagesChildhood Obesity Childhood Obesity Obesity is a burgeoning and threatening epidemic that is becoming more pervasive in the United States and around the world as time goes on. While life expectancy in the United States continues to rise, the incidences of obesity-related diseases such as diabetes and cancer are rising alarmingly fast as well. Children are among the hardest hit as they are some of the more vulnerable members of society due to their inability to care for themselves in many waysRead MoreRole of Appearance in the Hiring Process2584 Words   |  11 Pagestoday, take the side of changing â€Å"unfair† treatment and exposing weight discrimination as a problem that bothers society today. Rebecca Puhl, PhD, is the Director of Research and Weight Stigma Initiatives at the Rudd Center for Food Policy and Obesity at Yale University. Her article â€Å"Public Opinion about Laws to Prohibit Weight Discrimination in the United States† addresses discrimination of overweight people comparing it as equal to rates of discrimination of race. Puhl starts off the article